Foreign Intervention in Africa: From the Cold War to the War on Terror (New Approaches to African History)
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Foreign Intervention in Africa chronicles the foreign political and military interventions in Africa during the periods of decolonization (1956-1975) and the Cold War (1945-1991), as well as during the periods of state collapse (1991-2001) and the "global war on terror" (2001-2010). In the first two periods, the most significant intervention was extra-continental. The United States, the Soviet Union, China, Cuba, and the former colonial powers entangled themselves in countless African conflicts. During the period of state collapse, the most consequential interventions were intra-continental. African governments, sometimes assisted by powers outside the continent, supported warlords, dictators, and dissident movements in neighboring countries and fought for control of their neighbors' resources. The global war on terror, like the Cold War, increased the foreign military presence on the African continent and generated external support for repressive governments. In each of these cases, external interests altered the dynamics of Africa's internal struggles, escalating local conflicts into larger conflagrations, with devastating effects on African peoples.
struggles in a pattern that stretches from precolonial conquests and slave trades through the current quest for resources and the war on terror. Once again, local concerns have generally been subordinated to foreign interests. Humanitarian interventions, though well intentioned, have often been ineffective or counterproductive, whereas military interventions, even under the auspices of R2P, have frequently led to regime change with uncertain consequences. Organization of the Book The book is
military matériel to the National Liberation Front (FLN), which was fighting for Algerian independence. The FLN, like Nasser's Egypt, viewed itself as a leader in the broader movement for the emancipation of all colonized peoples in the European empires of Africa and Asia. Independent Algeria, like Egypt, would become a mecca for liberation movements from two continents. As in Egypt, the crisis in Francophone North Africa began as a conflict over decolonization, with Cold War issues introduced
East Germany followed suit with $2.5 million in military aid, furnishing weapons, instructors, pilots, and doctors. By September 22, the MPLA, with its augmented external support, had halted the advance toward Luanda of FNLA and Zairian troops accompanied by Portuguese mercenaries. By that time, the MPLA was dominant in nine of Angola's sixteen provinces, including the capital, the coastline from Luanda to Namibia, and the coastal hinterland. Angola's five major ports, the oil-rich Cabinda
assist in MPLA military planning, and in August it provided $100,000 for weapons transportation. It was only after the South African invasion in October that Cuba responded to the MPLA's pleas for troops. Unwilling to upset a tenuous détente with the United States, Moscow had refused to supply Soviet troops – or to airlift Cuban soldiers – until after Independence Day, which according to the Alvor Accord would be on November 11. As the agreement disintegrated, it became clear that whoever
France's African Policy,” Journal of Modern African Studies 23, no. 2 (June 1985): 189–208; and Martin Staniland, “Francophone Africa: The Enduring French Connection,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 489 (January 1987): 51–62. A number of articles focus specifically on Franco-African military cooperation agreements, the presence in Africa of French troops and bases, and French military intervention in independent African states. Four are especially recommended: