UNESCO General History of Africa, Volume 5: Africa from the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Century
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This groundbreaking work was the first of its type to present the entire history of the African continent. The collection sheds light on the pre-colonial era and interweaves Africa’s destiny with the rest of humanity’s, examining its interaction with other continents and the role of Africans in the dialogue between civilizations. Published in eight volumes.
Volume V covers a crucial period in African history where populations of the different regions gathered to create social, economic, religious, cultural and politic entities which constitute contemporary African peoples. The volume studies the beginning of the slave trade and the coexistence of traditional religions with Christianity and Islam.
numerous prestigious and profitable offices. Former opposition from the aristocracy to the centralistic policies of the monarchs was thus eliminated and the state became a more cohesive entity. Trade with Africa, and subsequently with India, accelerated the development of the Portuguese trader class which had been relatively weak even in thefifteenthcentury. T h u s , Portugal might have been thought - in the early sixteenth century - to have entered upon a path of lasting economic and political
and M o m b a s a . It took wars, the destruction of trading posts (as the Zimba did in Mozambique in the sixteenth century) and prohibitions on trade (as often happened in Senegambia, Angola and the K o n g o ) to persuade the European powers and their merchants to resume paying taxes. But these more or less regular sources of income were the cause of wars among the aristocracies and ruling classes throughout the continent. Political entities were predominantly areas in which a balance had been
magnitude of contraband slave imports into Spanish America in 45. W . Borah and S. F . Cook, 1967, p. 204. 94 Africa in world history the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries makes it almost impossible to show the quantitative contribution of African slave labour to the production of precious metals in Spanish America during those centuries.46 However, a census taken in Spanish America by the clergy in 1796 was reported to plate 4.3 Negro slaves working on a coffee plantation in Brazil, c.
African coast.61 These early developments, however, were short-lived. W h e n the vast 59. See for example T . Shaw, 1970. Northrup says, 'Taken as a whole, the material remains of I g b o - U k w u are evidence of a craft industry highly developed in skill and artistry. While both earlier and richer than other evidence, the Igbc—Ukwu finds do not diverge from the general trends of cultural development in southern Nigeria. Yet these craft industries were but the summit of an economy about whose
administrator of all Egypt, the administrator of Upper Egypt bore the title of wäli (vice-regent) and stood second in the administrative hierarchy to the provincial administrator himself. The office was held exclusively by an official with the rank ofSandjak Bey and the vast financial and administrative machinery under his control was organized according to the system used in Lower Egypt. His political importance and his loyalty were also emphasized by the considerable number of troops at his