UNESCO General History of Africa, Volume 6: Africa in the Nineteenth Century until the 1880s
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Volume VI of the UNESCO General History of Africa covers the history of Africa from the beginning of the nineteenth century to the onset of the European ’scramble” for colonial territory in the 1880s.
In spite of growing European commercial, religious and political presence during the century, outside influences were felt indirectly most African societies, and they made a variety of culturally distinctive attempts to modernize, expand and develop. Two influential sequences of events – The Mfecane in Southern Africa with its ramification in Central and East Africa, and the movements of Muslim reformers in West Africa-owed little or nothing to foreign influences and figure prominently in eight of the chapters.
The book opens with four thematic chapters examining the major forces at work in African society at the beginning of the century; Africa’s changing role in the world-economy; new trends and processes; and the effects of the abolition of the slave trade. These are followed by twenty-three chapters detailing developments in the various regions. Two concluding chapters trace the African diaspora and assess the state of the Continent’s political, economic and cultural development on the eve of the European conquest.
Each chapter is illustrated with black and white photographs, maps and figures. The text is fully annotated and there is an extensive bibliography of works relating to the period.
Africa, 1850-80 things, the British government sought to secure its interests by promoting a subordinate confederation in South Africa. Again, 'official mind' historians, the best example of them in this case being C . F . Goodfellow,30 have explained the genesis and operation of the confederation policy which reached its climax in the annexation of the Transvaal, initiated the fall of the Zulu kingdom, and led to the destruction of the Pedi state - in terms of the personalities of the British
a m w e z i and K a m b a of East Africa, the Arabs of Egypt and Sudan, and the Tio, O v i m b u n d u and C h o k w e of Central Africa. T h e outcome of all this was not only the commercial unification of Africa and an increase in intra-African contacts, not only a tremendous increase in the number of African entrepreneurs, middlemen and traders, but above all the progressive opening up of the hinterland of Africa to European and Arab/Swahili influence and manufactured goods with the tragic
did not appear to have been exposed to the pressure of dense settlement that ultimately came to face the leaders of the larger states in the region of the northern Nguni. Their close settlement (as opposed to the scattered settlement of the Nguni) had more to do with aggregation of whole communities near the few and sparse water sources than with pressure of population density. For as long as there was a careful balance maintained between the growth of both h u m a n and cattle populations on the
male nor female m e m b e r s of the regiments could marry. They could stay as long as ten years in a regiment before being released to marry. Apart from other things, this practice of the kings of the northern Nguni states controlled both the rate of production and reproduction. It is not clear w h e n this development started a m o n g the northern Nguni. It has n o w become usual to associate the start of such changes with the rule of Dingiswayo of the Mthethwa, and their perfection with the
the Drafting of a General History of Africa (igj8-ig8f) T h e General Conference of Unesco at its 16th Session instructed the Director-General to undertake the drafting of a General History of Africa. T h e enormous task of implementing the project w a s entrusted to an International Scientific Committee which was established by the Executive Board in 1970. This Committee, under the Statutes adopted by the Executive Board of Unesco in 1971, is composed of thirty-nine m e m b e r s (twothirds of